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中国教育的时代先声——庆祝改革开放40年系列述评·优先发展篇

文章来源: 中国教育报 发布时间: 2018年12月27日 点击数: 次 字体:

      “yaboappshoujibanderenminreaishenghuo,qipanyougenghaodejiaoyu、gengwendingdegongzuo、gengmanyideshouru……renminduimeihaoshenghuodexiangwang,jiushiyaboappshoujibandefendoumubiao。”2012niandeneigechudong,ganggangdangxuanzhonggongzhongyangzongshujidexijinping,zaishibajiezhonggongzhongyangzhengzhijuchangweitongzhongwaijizhejianmianhuishang,tandaorenminqipanshishouxiantidaolejiaoyu。

  2018nian9yue10ri,di34gejiaoshijiedangtian,xijinpingzongshujizaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyijinruxinshidai、quanmianjianchengxiaokangshehuijinrujueshengjieduandangzhongyangzhaokaidediyiciquanguojiaoyudahuishang,jiangjiaoyumingquedingweiwei“guozhidaji、dangzhidaji”,shenkezhichu,jiaoyushiminzuzhenxing、shehuijinbudezhongyaojishi,shigongzaidangdai、lizaiqianqiudedezhenggongcheng,duitigaorenminzonghesuzhi、cujinrendequanmianfazhan、zengqiangzhonghuaminzuchuangxinchuangzaohuoli、shixianzhonghuaminzuweidafuxingjuyoujuedingxingyiyi。

  lishizhanghezhongdemeiyigejiaoyin,huoshenhuoqian,huoxuzhiyourenzhenzouguoderen,huitouwangqu,cainengtihuibishineiyibudemaichuheqizhengui。farenyu40nianqiandeneichanggaigekaifang,kaiqileyiwanguorenlixianghexinniandehongdaxushi,yezaihuoshenhuoqiandebiangezhong,zhubuzhaoxundaojiaoyuzhiyugetichengzhang、minzufuxingdezunyanyuzhendi。

  lishibuhuiwangjizheilianggeshike,2001nian1yue1ri,yaboappshoujibanxiangquanshijiezhuangyanxuanbu: zhongguoshixianlejibenpujijiunianyiwujiaoyuhejibensaochuqingzhuangnianwenmangdezhanlvemubiao!dangrenleishehuimaijin21shijidierge10nian,2011nian11yue,yaboappshoujibanyongshishixiangshijiexuangao: zhongguoquanmianwanchengpujijiunianyiwujiaoyuhesaochuqingzhuangnianwenmangdezhanlverenwu!

亚博APP手机版  lishibuhuiwangjizheilianggejubian: jingguozhongguozhengfuherenminjiankuzhuojuedebuxienuli,zhongguoshixianlecongyigerenkoudaguoxiangjiaoyudaguo、renliziyuandaguodelishixingkuayue,yiwujiaoyubainianmengyuan!congquanmianpujidaogongpingjunheng,congxibunongcunlvxianmianfeidaoquanguochengxiangquanmianshixianzhenzhengyiyishangdeyiwujiaoyumianfei,1yiduomingshilingertongshaonianshangxuemianfeichengweixianshi,zhongguochuangzaoqiji!

  zailuoshijiaoyuyouxianfazhanzhanlve、jiakuaijiaoyuxiandaihua、jiakuaijianshejiaoyuqiangguodeshidaizhengchengshang,dangyaboappshoujibanbilishishangrenheshiqidougengjiejinshixianzhonghuaminzuweidafuxingdemubiaoshi,dangyaboappshoujibanjianfuzhegaigekaifangyilaitebieshidangdeshibadayilaidui“jiaoyudiyi”dezhizhezhuiqiuzouxiangxinshidaishi,huiwangguowangsuiyuezhengcheng,youxianfazhan,wuyishigaigekaifangkaiqidezheigehongweishidaidejiaoyuxiansheng。

  破冰: 发展理念的深层次变革

  zhongguoshidaizhelishidezhongfujinrugaigekaifangxinshiqide。

  gaigekaifangpobingzhishi,laobaixingderizibuzenmehaoguo。ganggangcongbaikongqianchuangzhonghuifuguolaideguojia,bujinyaokuaimajiabiangaojianshe,haiyaoyibudaomeiguogdp(guoneishengchanzongzhi)zongliang1/20deshouruyanghuochaoguodangshimeiguo10beiderenkou。

亚博APP手机版  “yidingchengdushangshuo,guojiadegaigekaifangshizijiaoyulingyu。”jiaoyubujiaoyufazhanyanjiuzhongxinyuanfuzhurenyangyinfurucipanduan。

  1977nian,huifugongzuohoudedengxiaopingzigaofenyongzhuajiaoyuhekeji,shouxianxuanzeyituifan“lianggeguji”weiboluanfanzhenghejiefangsixiangdetupokou。1977nian,huifuyijingzhongduanle10niandegaodengxuexiaotongyikaoshizhaoshengzhidu,zaiquanshehuizhongxinshulilezunzhongzhishi、zhongshijiaoyudefengqi,xiangwaipaiqianliuxueshengyesuizhihuifu。fangfoyixizhijian,xuexiaojiaoyuxunsubaituohunluanjumian,zoushanglezhengchangdeguidao。

  “xianzaikanlai,tongfadaguojiaxiangbi,yaboappshoujibandekexuejishuhejiaoyuzhengzhengluohoule20nian。……zhuakejibixutongshizhuajiaoyu。congxiaoxuezhuaqi,yizhidaozhongxue、daxue。”zuoweizheiyishiqijiaoyufangzhenhejiaoyugaigefangxiangdediandingzhe,1977nian5yue,dengxiaopingguanyuzunzhongzhishi、zunzhongrencaidezhumingjianghua,zaihendachengdushangquelilexinshiqijiaoyudefazhanfangxianghejibenjiazhi。

  bukefouren,1978nian5yuekaishideguanyuzhenlibiaozhundetaolun,1978nian12yueshiyijiesanzhongquanhuidezhaokai,zheilianggezhongyaolishishijian,jidadijiefanglejiaoyujie。yichangguanyu“jiaoyubenzhiyuzhineng”delunzhengyizhichixudaoshangshiji90niandai,erqizuizhongyaodeyingxiangjiushizhubucuchengle“jiaoyujifuwushangcengjianzhu,youfuwushengchanli”“jiaoyujicujinshehuifazhan,youcujinrendefazhan”zheixiejibengongshi。

  dengxiaopingcengzhichu,“yaboappshoujibanyaoqianfangbaiji,zaibiedefangmianrennaiyixie,shenzhixishengyidiansudu,bajiaoyuwentijiejuehao”。erzheiyirenshi,zai1980niandangdeshiyijiewuzhongquanhuiwenjianzhongyouzhexianmingdeyinji: “jiyaoquedingshiheguominjingjifazhanxuyaodejingjitizhi,youyaoquedingshiheguominjingjifazhanxuyaodejiaoyujihuahejiaoyutizhi。”“fazhanjingji,bixufazhanjiaoyu。gao‘sihua’libukaikexuejishurencai、jingjiguanlirencaiheqitagefangmianrencai,erpeiyangrencai,jiuyaokaojiaoyu。”

亚博APP手机版  ruguoshuo,dangdeshierdashoucijiangjiaoyuquedingweijinhoushehuizhuyixiandaihuajianshedezhongdianzhiyi,shidangniandengxiaopingbajiaoyufazhanhegaigenarugaigekaifangyuxiandaihuajianshezongtishejizhizhongdejizhongtixian,neime1985nian5yuebanbude《zhonggongzhongyangguanyujiaoyutizhigaigedejueding》,wuyishixinshiqijiaoyudezhenzhengqidian。

  rujinkanlai,《jueding》tichude“jiaoyubixuweishehuizhuyijianshefuwu,shehuizhuyijianshebixuyikaojiaoyu”zheiyiyu“yijingjijiansheweizhongxin”dezhengzhiluxianxiangyizhidexindejiaoyufangzhen,bujinshiyigejudadelishijinbu,erqiezaixiangdangzhangdelishijieduanjuedingzhejiaoyuyouxianfazhandefangxianghelujing,rangjiaoyuyouxianfazhanchengweilijiedangdaihuidehexinjiaoyuguanjianci。

  zaijiaoyugaigepijingzhanjidezhengtuzhong,dao20shiji90niandaichu,zhongguodelaobaixingrengmianlinduanquejingjidailaideduozhongdanyou,dangengduoshiduiweilaibuquedingxingdejiaolv。

  zaizheizhongjiaolvzhong,1993nianchutaide《zhongguojiaoyugaigehefazhangangyao》mingquetichu“bajiaoyubaizaiyouxianfazhandezhanlvediwei”。ziziqianjun! duanduan14gezidebiaoshu,delaiqueneibanbuyi。judangshicanyu《gangyao》qicaodegongzuorenyuanhuiyi,zaiti“bajiaoyubaizaizhongyaofazhandezhanlveweizhi”haishi“bajiaoyubaizaiyouxianfazhandezhanlveweizhi”shi,yantaoxiaozuneibujiuyoubutongkanfa。jizhixiangshehuigejiezhengqiuyijianshi,jiuyoujiaoyujieyiwaiderenshitichuyiyi: “bajiaoyubaizaiyouxianfazhandezhanlveweizhi,neiqitalingyuzenmeban,yaobuyaoyouxianfazhan?”

亚博APP手机版  cong“zhongyao”dao“youxian”,liangzizhicha,yiyifeifan。

  guojiatongjiju1992niande《guominjingjiheshehuifazhantongjigongbao》shujuxianshi,1992nianwoguorenjunguoneishengchanzongzhipaizaidangnianshijie100mingyihou。suijingguoduoniangaigekaifang,zhengtirenghenluohou,jidaibajiaoyubaizaiyouxianfazhandezhanlvediwei,yicujinjingjizengzhangfangshidezhuanbian,jiangjudaderenkoufudanzhuanbianweirenliziyuanyoushi。

亚博APP手机版  yushi,cong1988nian5yueqi,zhonggongzhongyangbianjuedingyanjiuqicaoyifenyouguanjiaoyugaigehefazhandeganglingxingwenjian——《zhongguojiaoyugaigehefazhangangyao》,yiquebaojiangjiaoyuyouxianfazhanzheiyizhanlvejueceluodaoshichu。5nianhouzhengshichutaide《gangyao》,chengweishiying20shiji90niandaizhongguojingjishehuifazhanhejianlishehuizhuyishichangjingjitizhiyaoqiudeyigeganglingxingjiaoyuwenjian。

亚博APP手机版  suoyi,dao1995nianjuxingdequanguokejidahuitichu“shishikejiaoxingguozhanlve”shi,yiqieshirucishuidaoqucheng。1998nian3yue19ri,jiujiequanguorendayicihuiyigangluoxiaweimu,“kejiaoxingguoshibenjiezhengfuzuidaderenwu”“zhongyangyijingjuedingchengliguojiakejijiaoyugongzuolingdaoxiaozu……yaboappshoujibanyoujuexinjinyibubakejiaoxingguofangzhenguanchedaodi”delujingbianqiangshijinrugongzhongshiye。

  erjin,yanyouzaier,20nianguangyinshuhuershi,kejiaoxingguozaoyikuayueshikong,chengweikeyiyingxiangnaizhijuedingzhongguoweilaiqiantuyumingyundezhongdajuece。

亚博APP手机版  zhengyinweikejiaoxingguozhanlvedeshishi,zhongguozaibudaosanfenzhiyideshijizhongjibenpujilejiunianyiwujiaoyu,jibensaochuleqingzhuangnianwenmang。dao2017nian,woguoxueqianjiaoyumaoruyuanlvdadao79.6%,jiunianyiwujiaoyugonggulv93.8%,gaozhongjieduanmaoruxuelv88.3%,gaodengjiaoyumaoruxuelvdadao45.7%。

  “zhongguojiangjiandingshishikejiaoxingguozhanlve,shizhongbajiaoyubaizaiyouxianfazhandezhanlveweizhi,buduankuodatouru,nulifazhanquanminjiaoyu、zhongshenjiaoyu,jianshexuexixingshehui,nulirangmeigehaizixiangyoushoujiaoyudejihui,nulirang13yirenminxiangyougenghaogenggongpingdejiaoyu,huodefazhanzishen、fengxianshehui、zaofurenmindenengli。”2013nian9yue25ri,guojiazhuxixijinpingzailianheguo“jiaoyudiyi”quanqiuchangyixingdongyizhounianjinianhuodongshang,zuoweidaguoshounao,xiangshijiezuochulejiaoyuyouxianfazhandezhuangyanxuanshi。

  行动: 教育面貌的全方位变化

亚博APP手机版  1983nian,jiaoshijiedangtian,dengxiaopingweijingshanxuexiaotici: “jiaoyuyaomianxiangxiandaihua,mianxiangshijie,mianxiangweilai。”zheigehoulaibeijiancheng“sangemianxiang”detici,diertianbiantongguomeitichuanbianquanguo,bingxierule1985niande《zhonggongzhongyangguanyujiaoyutizhigaigedejueding》zhong。

亚博APP手机版  “xiandaihua”“shijie”“weilai”zheixiefuyouganzhaolideziyan,weishangzaigaigezhongmosuoqianxingderenmen,tigongleyigerenshijiaoyuyouxianfazhandequanxinshiye: yi“xiandaihua”gainianweizhouxin,ba“zhongguo”he“shijie”、“guoqu”he“weilai”shendulianjie。

  duonianhou,weiyujiaoyububeilouwucengde“4%bangongshi”sihuyibuzaiyulundezhongxin。danzheigecengjingzhanranzhelixianghuasecaidebangongshi,quezhenzhenqieqiejianzhengleguojiacaizhengxingjiaoyujingfeizhichushixianguoneishengchanzongzhizongliangzhanbi4%zheiyiguojiamubiaocongyuanjingbianweixianshidebolanzhuangkuo。

  bukefouren,weirao4%zheixiangzhengcemubiaodeshixian,zaijingjishehuifazhandehongdabeijingxia,woguokaizhanleyixiliejiaoyucaizhengtouruheguanlitizhigaige,shijiankuadujin20nian。

  jiaoyuyouxianfazhandeqianzhanxingtezheng,juedingleqineihanbiransuizheshehuideqianjinheshidaidebianqianerbuduanfengfufazhan。danwulunruhe,tourudoushihengliangjiaoyuyouxianfazhandeyidazhongyaozhibiao,gengshipingjiayigeguojia、yigediqujiaoyushiyeshifouyouxianfazhandezhongyaobiaochi。

  1980nian,dang19suidezhiyueyingzhishenlaidaohaibajinqianmi、juxiangzhen45gonglidejiangxishengyichunshifengxinxianzaoxiazhenniyangcunxiaoxue,chengweiyimingxiangcunjiaoshishi,mianduidashanshenchudexuexiao,haizimendekeben、fenbidengdouyoujiaoshimenbuxing10duogonglideshanluyunshangshandexianshi,tabucengxiangdao,shijinianhoudeyifenwenjian,huiweixiangcunjiaoyudailaizenyangdeshuguang。

  jingguofanfuyanjiuhetaolun,1993nian,zhongyangzuizhongjueding,guojiacaizhengxingjiaoyujingfeizhichuzhanguoneishengchanzongzhidebilidao2000nianmodadao4%,bingbazheiyimubiaoxierudangnianfabude《zhongguojiaoyugaigehefazhangangyao》。congci,woguogonggongjiaoyujingfeibokuanyouleshuliangshangdezhengceyiju。

亚博APP手机版  1993nianguojiacaizhengxingjiaoyujingfeizhichuzhangdpde2.46%,2005nianzhan2.82%,2006nianzhan3.01%,2011nianzhan3.93%……zaizhongguojiaoyufazhanshishang,sihumeiyounayitiaoquxiannengbicaizhengxingjiaoyujingfeizhichuzhangdpdebilizoushiruciqiandongrenxin。

  2010nian7yue,《guojiazhongzhangqijiaoyugaigehefazhanguihuagangyao(2010—2020nian)》zaijuguoguanzhuzhongbanbubingshishi。zuoweixinqiannianzhongguojiaoyudeyici“shijixingdong”,tabujinzhimingleweilai10nianzhongguojiaoyudefazhanfangxiang,gengyiguojiayizhijinyibuquelilejiaoyuyouxianfazhandezhanlvediwei,yeranghuaxiaminzuduijiaoyudechuxinzhongxinmengdong。

  jiaoyuguihuagangyaobanbubudao3geyue,guowuyuanjianggangyaoquedingderenwufenjiewei190xiang,fenbieyoujiaoyubu、caizhengbu、guojiafagaiwei、renliziyuanheshehuibaozhangbu、kejibudeng11gebumenqiantou,49gebumencanyu,zhuxiangyuyiluoshi。

  2012nian,jiaoyujiedengdai20nianzhijiude“jiaoyuzhichuzhangdpde4%”zheiyimubiaozhongyushixian!zheiyinian,zhongyangcaizhengjiaoyuzhichujihua3781yiyuan,difangyusuanjiaoyuzhichu17800yiyuan,zongzhichujiangchaoguo2wanyiyuan。

亚博APP手机版  shixian4%defengyu20nian,shizhongguojiaoyuchengzhangde20nian,yeshikaoyanzhongguozhengfuzhihuihejuexinde20nian,gengshizhongguozheiyangyigefazhanzhongdaguozaijiaoyuyouxianfazhandaolushangkaituoqianjinde20nian。

  zhongdazhengceyuzhongdalishishijianyiyang,wangwangyiqiqiangdadezhenhanligaibianzheyidairendesixiang、qingganhetaidu。bansuizhejuecexiaoguozhujianfuchushuimian,kaishizaijingshenneihehexingdongfanglveshangdedaojianshi。zuoweishijieshangzuidadefazhanzhongguojia,zhongguoyouxianfazhanjiaoyudedaolu,wuyiyouqidutedezixinhejianshou。

亚博APP手机版  ruhecong“youxianfazhan”dao“cujingongpingfazhanhezhiliangtisheng”,zaidaobangongpingeryouzhiliangdejiaoyu,zheishiyidaogengxuyaoyongzhihuiquzhengmingdeluojiti。

亚博APP手机版  gaigekaifang40nianlai,congquelijiaoyuyouxianfazhanzhanlve,daobashishikejiaoxingguozuoweijibenguoce,zaidaorencaiqiangguozhanlve……zaiqiansuoweiyoudetiaozhanyuzhanlvejiyumianqian,zhongguozuochuleyouguanguojiaqiantuheminzumingyundezhongdalishijueze。zaijiaoyuguihuagangyaodelantushang,jiaoyuyouxianfazhanbushijiandandeshuliangkuozhang,ershibixuyitigaozhiliangweiqiantidezhidefeiyue。

  congxinyilunkaoshizhaoshengzhidugaigequanmianqidong,daogaigerencaipeiyangmoshi,congwanshandachengshiyiwujiaoyumianshijiujinruxue,daogaishanpinkundiquboruoxiaojibenbanxuetiaojian,conggoujianxiandaizhiyejiaoyutixi,daojiaqiangxiandaidaxuezhidujianshe,congshenhuajiaoyududaogaige,daotuijinjiaoyujianzhengfangquan……yichuichuizhidiyoushengdegaigejucuo,wuyibushizaijiaoyuyouxianfazhandaolushangdeyicicitansuo、yicicitupo。

  chengxiaobuyanziming。dulidisanfangduizhongguojiaoyujinxingdepingguxianshi,woguojiunianyiwujiaoyuxueshengzongshuwei1.4yi,pujilvchaoguoshijiegaoshouruguojiapingjunshuiping,gaozhongjieduanmaoruxuelvhegaodengjiaoyumaoruxuelvliangxiangzhibiaojungaoyushijiezhongshangshouruguojiapingjunshuiping。

  未来: 教育强国的内涵式发展

亚博APP手机版  2015nian3yue16riwanshang7dian,zhongyangdianshitaixinwenlianbojiemuzhong,guojiazhuxixijinpingzairenmindahuitanghuijianmeiguohafodaxuexiaozhangdelu·jierping·fusite。“zhongguoyizhibajiaoyufangzaiyouxianfazhandezhanlvediwei。”wenzuozaibaiseshafalidexijinpingduifusiteshuo。

  erzaidangnianganggangbimudequanguolianghuishang,yiwangzhengfugongzuobaogaozhong“jiaoyuyouxianfazhan”debiaoshu,bei“cujinjiaoyugongpingfazhanhezhiliangtisheng”suoqudai。

  jiaoyuyouxianfazhanguoshilema?cike,xijinpingzheijukansixunchangdewaijiaochanghedebiaotai,ranghenduorentingchulexuanshiluodizhiyin。

亚博APP手机版  zuoweizhongguozhengfubanbudemianxiang2020nianjiaoyuguihuagangyao20gezigongzuofangzhenzhishou,“youxianfazhan”bansuizhegaigekaifang40niandelicheng,congwudaoyou,congliniandaoshijian,yijingchengweilebuyaneryudegongshi。

  tebieshidangdeshibadayilai,congzhongyangdaodifang,congzhengfudaominjian,congjiaoyuxitongdaoquanshehui,zhei4geziyourumalishizudeyinqing,qianyinzhedaguojiaoyu,kaixiangweilai。zhei5nianjian,zhengfugongzuobaogaojiaoyubufendeguanjianci,cong“youxianfazhan”dao“youxianfazhan、gongpingfazhan”,zaidao“cujingongpingfazhanhezhiliangtisheng”。cong“xian”dao“you”,cizudebianqian,kuayuecanghai。

亚博APP手机版  linianheshijiandehuyingguanxi,chengxiandeshitedingjingjishehuixiajiaoyugaigefazhandejiegouxingzhuangtai,zheiyekenengchengweidongxigaigekaifang40nianshizhixingjiaoyufazhandeyifangmianweidu。zaidangdaizhongguozheichangjijuguangfanxingyushenkexingdegaigekaifangzhong,jiaoyuliniandebiangeshibukedang。

  1977nian10yue,yitiaolingrenzhenfendexiaoxichuanbianzuguoshanxiangdegegejiaoluo,rangyiqunqunzhishiqingnianweizhihuanhuqueyue: jiaoyububujiuqianzaibeijingzhaokaiquanguogaodengxuexiaozhaoshenggongzuohuiyi,juedinghuifuyijingtingzhile10niandequanguogaodengyuanxiaozhaoshengkaoshi,yitongyikaoshi、zeyouluqudefangshixuanbarencaishangdaxue。

  “xuexi!dushu!canjiagaokao!”chengweidangshiyouzhiqingniandeyizhixuanze。raner,dangniande570wanmingkaoshengzhong,jinyou27wanrendeyizoujindaxuexiaomen。

亚博APP手机版  congshangshiji80niandaichucanjiagaokaoshi“100gerenlizhiyou4gerencainengdudaodaxue”dexianshi,daogaodengjiaoyucongjingyingjiaoyudaodazhongjiaoyudejintian,jiangxicaijingdaxuehuanjingyumaoyiyanjiuzhongxinzhurenlixiuxiangjuede,shigaigekaifangranggaodengjiaoyuxiangyuelaiyueduodeguorenchangkailedamen。

  bolanzhuangkuo、qitunshanhedegaigekaifang,zhijiecuishenglezhongguodeqiangjingjueqi,chuangzaochuleyigequanxindezhongguoteseshehuizhuyizhidutixibingqiexunsuchengweishijieshangdedierdajingjiti。

  zaijiaoyuguihuagangyaodelantushang,jiaoyuyouxianfazhanyebuzaishijiandandeshuliangkuozhang,daizhiyitigaozhiliangweiqiantidezhidefeiyue。youzhiyujunheng,shihengliangjiaoyuyouxianfazhandelianggebutongweidu,queshitongyiguisu。

  congxinyilunkaoshizhaoshengzhidugaigequanmianqidong,daogaigerencaipeiyangmoshi,congwanshandachengshiyiwujiaoyumianshijiujinruxue,daogaishanpinkundiquboruoxiaojibenbanxuetiaojian,conggoujianxiandaizhiyejiaoyutixi,daojiaqiangxiandaidaxuezhidujianshe,congshenhuajiaoyududaogaige,daotuijinjiaoyujianzhengfangquan……zhongguojiaoyudegujiazhengbeizheiyichuichuizhidiyoushengdegaigejucuohangdegengjiajianshi。

亚博APP手机版  congtigaoshengjunjingfeidaogaishanjiaoshidaiyu,congxiushanzhongxiaoxuexiaoshedaopeizhixianjinjiaoxuesheshi,yixiangxiangzhengfudehongdatouru,zhengzaiqiaorangaibianzhongguojiaoyudemianmao。zhanxindexiaoshe,rehudewucan,wennuandenuanqi,qilvdeqiuchang,zhongguojiaoyumeiyicidekuobufeisheng,douzangzaizheixiekansiweibuzudaodexijieli。zhengshizheiyigegexijie,shenshendikehuazhe“jiaoyuyouxianfazhan”dehongtudalve。

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