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中国教育的兴盛之本——庆祝改革开放40年系列述评·尊师重教篇

文章来源: 中国教育报 发布时间: 2018年12月27日 点击数: 次 字体:

      “guoyunxingshuai,xiyujiaoyu;jiaoyudaji,jiaoshiweiben。”

  danglishidechelunzoudao2018nian,dangzhongguorenmintashanglezhonghuaminzuweidafuxingdexinzhengcheng,“jiaoshi”zheigezhiyedezhongyaoxingzaiyicidedaoqueren。

  huishou40nianlicheng,jingjifazhan、wenhuafanrong、shehuipingwenyouxuyunxingsuoxuyaodeyiqierencaidoulibukaixuexiaohejiaoshidepeiyang。zunshizhongjiaoshijiaoyushiyexingwangfanrong、zhenxingfazhandejianqiangbaozhang。dangdeshibadayilai,dangheguojiashizhongbajiaoshiduiwujianshezuoweizuizhongyaodejichuxinggongcheng。yilianchuandegaigejucuojixiangcunjiaoshisongshanganxincongjiaodedingxinwan,yixiliedaiyubaozhanghejianglizhengcezengqianglejiaoshizhiyedexiyinli,guanlitizhidebuduanwanshanjifalejiaoshiduiwudeshengjihuoli。rujin,yizhijianfuzhejianshejiaoyuqiangguozhongrendezhuanyehuajiaoshiduiwuzhengzaixingcheng。

  以非凡决心作出千钧之诺

亚博APP手机版  “xiangongshang,houcaimao,naeryebuyaoquxuexiao。”

  “nizaixuexiaohaohaogan,jianglaiwotuorenrangnidangshouhuoyuan。”

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  tigaolaodongzhedesuzhi,barenkoufudanzhuanbianweirenliziyuan,fazhanjiaoyupozaimeijie,danxianshishi,lijinghaojiedexuexiaomeiyouduoshaohegejiaoshikeyong。

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亚博APP手机版  haiyuandaozheiyangdelishibeijingxia,“zunshizhongjiao”sigezi,ziziqianjun。1985nian1yue21ri,liujiequanguorendachangweihuidijiucihuiyitongguo《guanyujiaoshijiedejueding》,juedingmeinian9yue10riweijiaoshijie。5yue27ri,zhongyangzhengzhijutaoluntongguo《zhonggongzhongyangguanyujiaoyutizhigaigedejueding》,qizhongmingquexiedao: “yaozaiquanshehuifanweinei,dalishulihefayangzunzhonggejigeleijiaoshidelianghaofengshang,shijiaoshigongzuochengweizuishourenzunzhongdezhiyezhiyi。”dangnian9yue10ri,beijingshifandaxuexicaochangshangjuxingshougejiaoshijieqingzhudahui,xueshengdachu“jiaoshiwansui”debiaoyu。

亚博APP手机版  ruguoshuo,chuxianzaitiananmenguangchangde“xiaopingninhao”zhenfenlequanguorenmin,neime“jiaoshiwansui”duijiaoyujietongyangjuyousixiangjiefangdeyiyi。beijingshifandaxueyuanxiaozhang、jiaoshijiedeshouchangzhewangzikunzaijieshoumeiticaifangshicengshuo: “tayifangmianbiaodalexueshengduilaoshidezunzhong,lingyifangmiangengxiangquanshehuihuyuxingchengzunzhongjiaoshidefengqi。”

亚博APP手机版  congciyihou,dangheguojiashizhongbajiaoshiduiwujianshebaizaituchuweizhi,kaiqilegaigekaifangderencaizhujigongcheng。

  1993nian,zhonggongzhongyang、guowuyuanyinfa《zhongguojiaoyugaigehefazhangangyao》,mingquetichu: “zhenxingminzudexiwangzaijiaoyu,zhenxingjiaoyudexiwangzaijiaoshi。jiansheyizhijuyoulianghaozhengzhiyewusuzhi、jiegouheli、xiangduiwendingdejiaoshiduiwu,shijiaoyugaigehefazhandegenbendaji。yaoxiajuexin,caiquzhongdazhengcehecuoshi,tigaojiaoshishehuidiwei,daligaishanjiaoshidegongzuo、xuexiheshenghuotiaojian,nulishijiaoshichengweizuishourenzunzhongdezhiye。”tongnian,bajiequanguorendasicihuiyitongguo《zhonghuarenmingongheguojiaoshifa》,congfalvshangquelilejiaoshidediweihedaiyu。

  jijiangjinruxinshiji,《zhonggongzhongyangguowuyuanguanyushenhuajiaoyugaigequanmiantuijinsuzhijiaoyudejueding》he《mianxiang21shijijiaoyuzhenxingxingdongjihua》liangfenwenjian,duijiaoshiduiwujianshetichumingquedeyaoqiuhefangxiang。

  dangshijianzouguo21shijidediyige10nian,jiaoshidediweijinyibutigao。2012nian,guowuyuanzhaokailexinzhongguochengliyilaidiyiciquankoujingdequanguojiaoshigongzuohuiyi;2013nianyihou,xijinpingzongshujijihumeinianjiaoshijieqianxidouyaoxiangquanguojiaoshizhiyijierizhuhe。2018nian1yue,《quanmianshenhuaxinshidaijiaoshiduiwujianshegaigedeyijian》zhengshiduiwaigongbu,chengweixinzhongguochengliyilaidangzhongyangchutaidediyigezhuanmenmianxiangjiaoshiduiwujianshedelichengbeishizhengcewenjian,jiangjiaoyuhejiaoshigongzuotidaoleqiansuoweiyoudezhengzhigaodu。zheifenyijianweiraoquanmianjiaqiangshideshifengjianshe,buduantishengjiaoshizhuanyesuzhinengli,shenhuajiaoshiguanlizonghegaige,buduantigaojiaoshidiweidaiyu,quebaozhengcejucuoluodijianxiaodengfangmiantichulejutijucuo。

亚博APP手机版  zheiyiqiedenuli,shizhongchaoxiangyigemubiao,rangjiaoshichengweilingrenxianmudezhiye,rangyouxiuderennenggouyincierchengweijiaoshi。

  以改革精神破解教师之难

亚博APP手机版  zhongguoyongyouzheshijiezuidaguimodejiaoshiduiwu。ruhejianshehao、diaodonghaozheizhiduiwu,shiguanguojiajingjishehuifazhanquanju。

亚博APP手机版  zaigesongdeshipianzhong,jiaoshishihongzhu,shichuncan,shirenti,shilushi,xishenghefengxianshiqigongtongtedian。raner,zaiyongdongdeshichangdachaozhong,rangjiaoshianxincongjiao,jinkaojingshenshangdezhongshihesongyangyuanyuanbugou。suoxingchuyugaigeniandaidezhongguo,youdeshichuangxinfazhandejingshenyuzhihui,youdeshitizhijizhibiangedejuexinyuyanguang。

亚博APP手机版  tupocongtigaojiaoshidaiyukaishi。shujuxianshi,1978nian,woguozhongxiaoxuejiaoshiderenjunnianshouruzhiyou599yuan。2017nian,gongbanzhongxiaoxuezaigangrenyuanpingjungongzidadao8.2wanyuanzuoyou,he2012nianxiangbi,zhenggejiaoyuxingyegongzishouruzengfuda74%。

  “meigeyuegongzizaikouchuwuxianyijinqianshi7300duoyuan,jiashangnianzhonggexiangjiangjin6000duoyuan。”sichuanshengjintangxianzhuanlongzhenchujizhongxuedexiaolaoshiduishourutingmanyi。erbeijingmouzhongxuetuixiudelilaoshizejianzhengleguojiazai1985nian、1993nian、2009nian3cijijiaoshidiaozhenggongzi,yejinglilezaijiatingzhongcongshouruzuididaozuigao。fujinzhuixi,tazihaodishuo: “《jiaoshifa》guidingdejiaoshipingjungongzishuipingbudiyuhuozhegaoyudangdigongwuyuandepingjungongzishuiping,zaiwojiashixianle!”

  jinnianchutaide《quanmianshenhuaxinshidaijiaoshiduiwujianshegaigedeyijian》zhong,guanyujiaoshigongzidezuixinbiaoshuxiugaiwei“jianquanzhongxiaoxuejiaoshigongzizhangxiaoliandongjizhi,hedingjixiaogongzizongliangshitongchoukaolvdangdigongwuyuanshijishourushuiping”。conggongzishuipingdaoshijishourushuiping,zheijiushigaigedejindu。

亚博APP手机版  40nianlai,guojiaguanyujiaoshidezhengce,zhezhongcongzhiduhedingcengjizhirushou,jiejuexianshizhongcunzaidemaodunhewenti,huanfachujiaoshiduiwudeshengjihuoli。

亚博APP手机版  sheilaizuojiaoshi?jingguo40niandenuli,woguojiaoshijiaoyushixianlecongzhongshi、dazhuanhebenke“jiusanji”xiangzhuanke、benkeheyanjiusheng“xinsanji”zhuanbian,kaifanglinghuodexiandaijiaoshijiaoyutixizhujianxingcheng。2017nianquanguogongyou187suobenzhuankecengcideshifanyuanxiaohe383suojubanjiaoshijiaoyudefeishifanyuanxiao,142jiajiaoyushuoshipeiyangdanweihe15jiajiaoyuboshipeiyangdanwei,shixianjiaoshifazhanjigouda2400duosuo。

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  ruhepingjiajiaoshi?cong2009nianguowuyuanqidongzhongxiaoxuejiaoshizhichengzhidugaigeshidian,dao2015nian8yueguowuyuanjuedingquanmiantuikaizhongxiaoxuejiaoshizhichengzhidugaige,yibubugaigedatonglejiaoshizhiyefazhandetongdao。

  ruhefazhanjiaoshi?2010nianguojiaqidong“guopeijihua”,zhongyangcaizhenganpaizhuanxiangjingfeigongji150yiyuan,leijipeixunjiaoshichaoguo1000yuwanrenci,youlituidonglegedikaizhanjiaoshiquanyuanpeixun。jiaoshijiaoyuguojiajijingpinziyuangongxiangkejianshejihua、quanguozhongxiaoxuejiaoshixinxijishuyingyongnenglitishenggongcheng、zhiyeyuanxiaojiaoshisuzhitigaojihua……yigeyiguojiajiaoshijiaoyushifanjidiweiyinling、shifanyuanxiaoweizhuti、jiaoshifazhanzhongxinweiniudai、youzhizhongxiaoxueweishijianjididekaifang、xietong、liandongdexiandaijiaoshijiaoyutixizhengzaijianli。

  ruheguanlijiaoshi?jinnianlai,yixianguanxiaopinweitupokou,gedijijituidongxiaozhangjiaoshiyaboappshoujibanlungang,rangjiaoshishenfenwanchengleyou“xuexiaoren”dao“xitongren”dezhuanbian。shixingxiaozhangzhijizhi,quxiaoxingzhengjibie,cushixiaozhangjizhongjinglizhuajiaoyujiaoxuehexuexiaoguanli,yidapixuezhexing、zhuanjiaxingxiaozhangxunsuchengzhangqilai。danghezhengfushizhongbajiaqiangjiaoshizhiyedaodejianshezuoweizunshizhongjiaohetigaojiaoshisuzhidehexin。《guanyujianlijianquanzhongxiaoxueshidejianshezhangxiaojizhideyijian》《guanyujianlijianquangaoxiaoshidejianshezhangxiaojizhideyijian》dengwenjianxianhouchutai,shishidejianshequanmianmairuzhiduhua、guifanhuahefazhihuaguidao。

  gaigekaifang40nianlai,bansuiwoguogejigeleijiaoyudebuduanfazhan,jiaoshiduiwuguimobuduankuoda,quanguozhuanrenjiaoshirenshucong1978niande899wanrenzengjiadao2017niande1622.6wanren。woguoputongxiaoxue、chuzhonghegaozhongzhuanrenjiaoshixuelihegelvfenbiecong47.1%、9.8%、45.9%tigaodao99.96%、99.8%、98.2%,fenbietigaole52.86gebaifendian、90gebaifendian、52.3gebaifendian。

  以倾斜资源化解乡村教师之痛

  zaiwoguo,jiyoubeishangguangshenzheiyangdegaigefazhanqianyanzhidi,youyouzhongduolaoshaobianqiongdepinkundiqu。ruheranggaigechengguohuijiquantirenmin?ruhezhulipinkundiqushixianxiaokang?

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  zhengcexiangnongcunjiaoshiqingxie,weixiangcunjiaoyuzaoxue——dangzhongyang、guowuyuanzuochulegaozhanyuanzhudejueding。

  zhenduixiangcundiqujiaoshishuliangquekouyanzhongdewenti,2007nianguojiashishijiaoyubuzhishushifandaxueshifanshengmianfeijiaoyu,muqianyiweizhongxiaoxuebuchonglejin7wanminggaosuzhijiaoshi,qizhong90%daozhongxibuzhongxiaoxuerenjiao。28geshengfenshishixiangcunjiaoshigongfeidingxiangpeiyang,meinianpeiyang4wanduominggaoxiaobiyeshengdaoxiangcunzhongxiaoxuerenjiao。

亚博APP手机版  2006nian,jiaoyubu、caizhengbudeng4buweilianheshishi“nongcunyiwujiaoyujieduanxuexiaojiaoshiteshegangweijihua”。qijinzhongyangcaizhengyitourujingfei456yiyuan,weizhongxibuxiangcunbuchongle66.8wanmingzhongxiaoxuejiaoshi。

亚博APP手机版  2013niankaishi,guojiashishixiangcunjiaoshishenghuobuzhuzhengce,zhongyangcaizhengyileijihuabo127.5yiyuan,huiji8wansuoxuexiao130wanmingjiaoshi,zuigaorenjunyuebuzhubiaozhundadao2000yuan。“guopeijihua”meinianpeixunxiangcunjiaoshichaoguo100wanrenci,dao2020nianjiangshixianduizhongxibuxiangcunjiaoshizhengtilunxun。

  2015nian6yue,guobanyinfa《xiangcunjiaoshizhichijihua(2015—2020nian)》,zheishixinzhongguochengliyilai,dangzhongyang、guowuyuanchutaidediyibuzhuanmenzhixiangxiangcunjiaoshiduiwujianshedezhengcewenjian,congshiderongyu、buchongyaboappshoujiban、zhichengbianzhi,daogongzidaiyu、peiyangpeixun、guanligaige,duixiangcunjiaoshijiyuquanfangweizhichi。

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  yizhizhuizongyanjiu“tegangjihua”debeijingshifandaxuejiaoyuxuebujiaoshouzhengxinrongrenwei,zhongyangcaizhengduinongcunjiaoshidezhijiezhichi,youxiaohuanjielenongcunjiaoshiziyuandeduanque,cujinledifangzhengfuduishiziwentidezhongshi。

  tuidongluoshilianpiantekundiquxiangcunjiaoshishenghuobuzhuzhengce、jiakuaijianshebianyuanjiankudiquxiangcunxuexiaojiaoshizhouzhuansushe、tuidongtongyichengxiangzhongxiaoxuejiaozhigongbianzhibiaozhun、tuidongchengzhenyouxiuxiaozhangjiaoshixiangxiangcunxuexiaoliudong……congzhongyangdaodifang,congdingcengshejidaoyilanzifanganzaidaogejigeleishishixize,zhichixiangcunjiaoshiduiwujianshechengweizhongdianheliangdian,guigezhigao,liduzhida,weilinianlaisuohanjian。

  cong2008niankaishi,gansushengtianshuishimeiniannachu100gexiaoxuegaojijiaoshidezhuanxiangzhibiao,yongyujiejuenvxingnianlingzai50suiyishang、jiaoling25nianyishang,nanxingzai55suiyishang、jiaoling30nianyishangdebianyuanshanquyixianlaojiaoshidezhicheng,bingqiemianqushuokehuanjiezhijiejinsheng。

  zaihenanshengdanchengxian,xiangtongzhicheng、nianxian、xuelidejiaoshi,xiangcunjiaoshibixianchengjiaoshizuigaomeiyueduode685yuan。tongshi,quanxianjianshebingpeitaowanshanle859taojiaoshizhouzhuanfang。“laile,jiubuzoule,woyijingaishangzheisuoxuexiaohezheilidehaizile。”danchengxianxulouxiaoxuedeshoupitegangjiaoshidingfanghuishenqingdishuo。

  以过硬素质求解时代之问

  “guangdalaoshishizaibuquedingxingshanggongzuoderen,zheizhonggongzuonandujida,suoyiduiyuguangdalaoshiyaogaokanyiyan、houaiyifen,zishizhizhongjiyutamenchonggaodediwei。”jiaoyubudangzushuji、buzhangchenbaoshengzaijinnianlianghuiqijianjieshoumeiticaifangshishuo。

  deque,zaishehuifazhandejinchengzhong,jiaoshisuochengdandebichangrengengduo。yifangmian,tamenzishenyaokefushehuikuaisufazhandailaidezhongzhongbushi,shizhongzhanxianzuihaodeyimian;lingyifangmian,tamenyexiaohuazheshehuizhuanxingqidailaidezhongzhongjiaolv,diyuzheshichanghuadachaoguoxiexiadezhongzhongyouhuo,jinkenengdijiweilaiyidaichuangzaolianghaodechengzhanghuanjing。

亚博APP手机版  renkoudezhangluo,dailaijiaoshiduiwuguimodeshensuo;bansuidagongchaoerchuxiandeliushouertong,rangjiaoshizengjialexindezhize;xinxihuadedaolai,weijiaoshidakaileziyuanbaoku……dantongshi,yuanbenfengbidulidezhijiaoguochengyeshichangbeifangzhizaishehuidejuguangdengxiazhikao。

  40nianlai,jiaoshimianduidetiaozhanbuduanbianhuafazhan,jiaoshizhiyedezerenheyaoqiubuduanzengjia,quanshehuiduijiaoshideqidaizhiyuelaiyuegao。zheijiugengxuyaojiaoshiyilianghaodeshideshifeng、guoyingzhuanyejinengheduijiaoyu、duixueshengdewusidaailaijieshoushidaidejianyan。

  shijianzhengming,tamenzuodaole。

亚博APP手机版  zaishengsianweimianqian,tamendexuanzeshixuesheng。yixuerouzhiquweixueshengdangkaicheliangdechongzhuang,heilongjiangjiaoshizhanglilizuodaole,henanjiaoshilifangzuodaole,gansujiaoshiyangxueyezuodaole。

亚博APP手机版  zaigongminglilumianqian,tamendexuanzeshiguojia。fangqiguowaiyouyuetiaojiantoushenzuguokejiqianyandejilindaxuejiaoshihuangdanianzuodaole,weixunzhaozhongzichangnianbenboyugaoyuandefudandaxuejiaoshizhongyangzuodaole,zhagentaixingshanqudailingnongmintuopindehebeinongyedaxuejiaoshilibaoguozuodaole。

  zaijiannankunkumianqian,tamendexuanzeshifengxian。yiwuchengchuan26nian、huyou1000duominghaizishangxuedeguangxijiaoshishilansongzuodaole,36nianzhagenshenshanjiaoxuediandejiangxijiaoshizhiyueyingzuodaole,shenyoucanjiquebashehuishankuanzhuanzengxuexiaodehenanjiaoshisunkehuizuodaole。

  ruguoshuo,yigerendexuanzeshiteli、shiouran,neimeguanchuan40nianyidaiyouyidaijiaoshikaimodeyizhixuanze,bianshiyizhongshenshenmingkezaizheizhiduiwuzhongdejingshenshiran。jintian,zheizhihangailexueqianjiaoyu、jichujiaoyu、zhiyejiaoyu、gaodengjiaoyu、chengrenjiaoyu,baohanliangyuanyuanshi、zhangjiangxuezhe、shuangshixingjiaoshidengxuekeqiquan、leixingfengfu、jiegouriquhelidejiaoyudajun,huoyuezaishehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanrenpeiyangdegegegangweishang。

亚博APP手机版  “guojiangxing,biguishierzhongfu。”

  zhanzaiminzufuxingxinzhengchengderukou,lishidehuixianggengjiahunhouningzhong。zunshizhongjiao,zheiyilijingzhonghuawenmingjiqiannianchuiliandejingsui,zaizuijin40nianzhongzaihuoxinsheng。

  huiwangguoqu,40nianlai,guangdajiaoshilaojishiming、buwangchuxin,aigangjingye、jiaoshuyuren,yongzijidebeibang,tuoqileshijieshangzuidaguimodejiaoyutixi,weiwoguoshixiancongrenkoudaguoxiangrenliziyuandaguozhuanbianzuochulejudagongxian。

  zhanwangweilai,guangdajiaoshizhongrenzaijian、shimingguangrong。zheizhizhonghuaminzu“mengzhidui”dezhumengren,bijiangyizhanxindezitai,weishixian“lianggeyibainian”fendoumubiao、shixianzhonghuaminzuweidafuxingdezhongguomeng,yuanyuanbuduandipeiyangrencai,gongxianzijidezhihuiheliliang。(benbaojizhe gaojing jiaoyixuan)

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